Key findings: 1. The Arctic’s climate is shifting to a new state. 2. Climate change in the Arctic has continued at a rapid pace. 3. Changes will continue through at least mid-century, due to warming already locked into the climate system. 4. Substantial cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions now can stabilize impacts after mid-century 5. Adaptation policies can reduce vulnerabilities 6. Effective mitigation and adaptation policies require a solid understanding of Arctic climate change. There is hope but that hope hinges on an understanding of Arctic climate change that is only supported by sparse environmental monitoring. Yikes! Let’s increase investments in circumpolar monitoring now – there is much to learn.